> The river might be the entire border, or only part of the border > (like the Detroit River). Answers may repeat.
> 1. Paraná.
Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil. 4 for Marc, Dan Tilque, Peter, Dan Blum, Don, Pete, Calvin, Erland (the hard way), and Joshua.
> 2. Brahmaputra.
India, Bangladesh, China. 4 for everyone -- Marc, Dan Tilque, Peter, Dan Blum, Don, Pete, Calvin, Stephen, Erland, and Joshua.
> 3. Tigris.
Iraq, Turkey. 4 for Marc, Dan Tilque, Dan Blum, Don, Pete, Stephen, and Erland. 3 for Calvin.
> 4. Orinoco.
Venezuela, Colombia. 4 for Marc, Dan Tilque, Don, Pete (the hard way), Stephen, and Erland. 3 for Dan Blum and Calvin.
> 5. Minho.
Portugal, Spain. 4 for Peter, Stephen, and Erland (the hard way).
> 6. Amur.
China, Russia. 4 for Marc, Dan Blum, Calvin (the hard way), and Stephen. 2 for Pete.
> 7. Hall's Stream.
Canada, US. 4 for Peter, Stephen, and Erland.
I didn't know this one either. It forms part of the northwestern border of New Hampshire where it protrudes into Quebec. By the way, the Treaty of Paris (1783) simply referred to the stream in terms of "the north-westernmost head of Connecticut-River".
> 8. Ubangi.
Central African Republic, DR Congo. 4 for Dan Blum. 2 for Pete and Calvin.
> 9. Morava.
Czechia, Slovakia. 4 for Marc, Don, Stephen, and Erland. 3 for Pete.
> 10. Odra (or Oder).
Germany, Poland. 4 for Marc, Dan Tilque, Dan Blum, Don, Pete, Stephen, and Erland (the hard way). 3 for Joshua.
> * Game 4, Round 8 - Science - The Science of Cold
This was the hardest round in the original game and was in a 3-way tie for 5th-hardest of the entire season.
> mixing nutrients within the water column for the benefit of > all living things. To the nearest whole degree, what is this > temperature where water is densest?
4°C (or 39°F, for those who want to make the question harder). 4 for Marc, Dan Tilque, Peter, Dan Blum, Don, Stephen (the hard way), and Erland. 3 for Calvin.
> drained pond can freeze and, over time, thrust the soil upward > into large mounds reaching up to 70 m in height and 600 m > in diameter. Name these mounds, common in the Tuktoyaktuk area.
Pingos. 4 for Dan Tilque and Stephen.
> 3. What is the scientific term (derived from Latin), for the world > "beneath the snow", where many animals such as moles and voles > can live in relative comfort?
Subnivean (or variants thereof). 4 for Stephen and Joshua.
> 4. Tabular, blocky, wedge, dome, pinnacle, dry dock, and growler > are all terms that describe variations of *what* cold-weather > phenomenon?
Icebergs. "Ice" was insufficiently specific. 4 for Dan Tilque, Pete, and Stephen. 2 for Calvin.
> snowpack, where it refreezes and forms a crust on the snow. > What is the scientific name for the process of ice turning > directly to vapor, without passing through a liquid state first?
Sublimation. 4 for Marc, Dan Tilque, Peter, Don, Pete, Calvin, Stephen, Erland, and Joshua. 3 for Dan Blum.
> about 22°, creating a halo around the sun. On occasion, this > refraction can create the appearance of two smaller suns on > either side of the actual sun. What is this phenomenon called?
Sun dogs, mock suns, phantom suns, or parhelia. 4 for Marc, Dan Tilque, Dan Blum, Don, and Stephen.
> 7. What is the common term for the muscular effect known as > "horripilation"?
Goose bumps. 4 for Marc, Dan Tilque, Dan Blum, Calvin, Stephen, and Joshua.
> experience excessively reduced blood flow to the fingers > and toes, causing them to turn white and numb. What is this > condition, named for a 19th-century French physician?
Raynaud's disease. 4 for Peter, Dan Blum, and Stephen.
> 9. 6 years after little Louise Brown of England became a household > name, Zoe Leyland of Melbourne Australia entered the history > books in 1984, for what cold-related "first"?
First baby born from a frozen embryo. 4 for Marc, Peter, Don, Pete, Calvin, Stephen, and Joshua.
> 10. Name the American who pioneered the process of flash-freezing > food by exposing it to supercooled substances, such as liquid > nitrogen.
Clarence Birdseye. 4 for Marc, Dan Tilque, Dan Blum, Don, Pete, Calvin, Stephen, and Joshua.
Scores, if there are no errors:
GAME 4 ROUNDS-> 2 3 4 6 7 8 BEST TOPICS-> Spo Lit Ent His Geo Sci FOUR Joshua Kreitzer 8 40 40 26 11 20 126 Pete Gayde 32 23 31 8 27 16 113 Don Piven 16 40 -- -- 24 20 100 "Calvin" -- -- 20 38 20 21 99 Marc Dashevsky 12 32 -- -- 28 24 96 Dan Blum 4 20 20 22 27 23 92 Peter Smyth 12 24 16 35 16 16 91 Dan Tilque 4 23 8 12 20 28 83 Stephen Perry -- -- -- -- 32 40 72 Erland Sommarskog 8 4 -- -- 32 8 52 Gareth Owen 26 24 -- -- -- -- 50
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